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FIRST MEANS OF COMMUNICATION
Ever since ancient times people have sought to transmit information over long distances. To do this, they used any means available: bells, trumpets, horns, drums, etc. Any communication mechanism was called an acoustic telegraph. And methods such as fires, colored flags, smoke signals, etc., were called optical telegraphs. For example, The lighting of bonfires announced the fall of Troy in Ancient Greece.
Acoustic phones existed in ancient times. In ancient Greece a pipe was laid under the road from house to house and used for negotiations. There was also a rope telephone, the principle of its operation being quite simple: a rope was stretched between two diaphragms. Due to the vibrations acting on the rope, sound was transmitted from one end to the other.
CHAPPE OPTICAL TELEGRAPH
In 1789, Claude Chappe, a priest, arrived in Paris showing his optical telegraph invention, which he called a 'semaphore'. This invention drew the attention of physics and mechanics fan G. Romm, stressing its importance before the war, its cheapness, convenience and speed. The Order released money to build such a telegraph 210 km long between Lille and Paris. In 1794, its construction was complete. 20 intermediate stations were established between the two cities.
At the beginning of the 19th Century the optical telegraph was the fastest method of carrying dispatches. A 'young' American government offered $30,000 dollars to anyone who could build a semaphore telegraph 1,600 kilometers long. The task seemed impossible.