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THE WORD WAS FIRST
The term telephone was far ahead of the emergence of practical telephony. In 1795 X. Wolke, the landlord of one of St. Petersburg's guesthouses, demonstrated to Catherine his 'telephone art' in Gatchina: a demonstration of acoustic communication through pipes between Petersburg and Kronstadt.
A serious theoretical basis for the implementation of telephoning was developed by a mechanical engineer in Paris called Charles Bursel from 1849-54. In his dissertation in 1854, he explained the operating principle of the telephone but it never made it to prototype.
The date of birth of the first electric phone is widely considered to be February 14, 1876. That same day, his invention, a talking phone (an apparatus for transmitting sound over a distance by means of electric current) was registered in the Western Union Washington bureau by Alexander Graham Bell, a Scottish-born American scientist. Two hours later a patent for an 'Apparatus for transmitting and receiving vocal sounds telegraphically' was filed by I. Gray from Chicago. Later he would repeatedly legally contest Bell for recogni...
In 1877, the St. Petersburg plant of the German company Siemens and Halske began releasing phones with two handsets, one for receiving and one for transmitting speech.