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FIRST CITY TELEPHONE EXCHANGES
After 1878, when the Russian Army adopted this new form of communication, the Telegraph Department also became interested in it for their communication needs. In November 1879 the chief of the St. Petersburg Telegraph division, F.Y. Gervart, was mandated to conduct experiments on 'using a phone for telegraphing on our telegraph lines and stations.'
In the early twentieth century, domestic telephone connection was a rapidly developing sector of the economy, though not without the participation of foreign capital. A particularly significant event was the spread of the international connection over a vast territory of Russia. Its development in our country began in the 1880s.
DEVASTATION YEARS AND RESTORATION
With the outbreak of World War I, telephonization of the country stopped and the ensuing revolutionary events worsened telephone connections sharply.
AUTOMATISATION OF TELEPHONE NETWORKS
As the development of urban and intercity telephone networks increased, the need was increasingly resognized to replace the manual telephone exchange service with automatic telephone exchanges (PBX).
STEP-BY-STEP AND CROSS PaBX
The next stage in the development of automatic telephone exchanges in Russia began in 1947: Russian specialists developed a new PaBX, the decadic (ATC-47). Its launch was held in 1949.