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JULIAN LEOPOLD OHOROVICH (1850-1917)

Known in Europe, Ukraine and Poland, the poet, essayist, psychologist, scientist and naturalist Julian Leopold Ohorovich was born on February 23, 1850 in Radzimin (Poland).

In 1872, he graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics at Warsaw University and then, in 1873, he received his Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig.

The professional interests and occupations of Ohorovich were very broad. Known for his literary work, philosophical writing, scientific research on hypnosis and psychotherapy, Julian Ohorovich also made ​​some interesting discoveries in the technical field: he was engaged in the development of the microphone, an apparatus used for the transmission of sound and light over a given distance. In 1877 he developed a theoretical model of the monochrome television.

The inventor's discoveries in telephony occurred between 1880-90. During this period Professor Ohorovich designed the double-diaphragm (double-membrane) electromagnetic telephone and thermo-microphone, which were considered to be his most important inventions. The latter device was so-named because of its high sensitivity to temperature, required for certain conditions.

In 1880 Julian Leopold created the loudspeaker. With the lodspeaker, the first loud telephone transmission was performed. This was, in fact, the beginning of modern wire broadcasting. Telephone transmissions were set up by Ohorovich during his visit to Paris upon the invitation of the Minister of Posts and Telegraphs of France. Operas from the theatre were broadcast into the Minister's apartment, four kilometers away. Similar experiments were also conducted for larger audiences.

In 1885 Ohorovich broadcast operas by wire to the 3rd St. Petersburg Electrotechnical Exhibition.